Esperanto translators

Each translation of the Treaty and Te Tiriti was drafted by a minimum of three translators. These translators first worked individually, and then together, to create the translations of the Treaty and Te Tiriti. These translations were then reviewed by independent reviewers to ensure the highest possible quality.

All of the Esperanto translators are listed in the Treaty Times Thirty book. Translators who chose to be included on the website are also listed below.

Brian Fox

Brian was Born in New Zealand and moved to South Africa in 1939. He learnt to speak English and Afrikaans fluently, and also learnt Esperanto.

He returned to New Zealand in 1946, and studied the Māori language and society, and the Treaty, at university. He then taught English at tertiary level in China, and learnt Mandarin and Spanish.

Daphne Lawless, Esperanto translator

Daphne Lawless

Daphne was born in Lower Hutt, New Zealand, and has had a passion for language from a young age. She began with a Teach Yourself German book at the age of 8, studied French at high school and was an active member of the Esperanto movement for years. She is now, among other things, a qualified professional translator, an indexer, a writer on political and cultural issues, a science fiction fan, a goalkeeper in both soccer and Gaelic football, and an electronic pop singer-songwriter as part of Vostok Lake (

But if you are only interested in translation, it is probably best to look her up at